Hi all Firstly, I'd like to thank you all for sharing your knowledge and experience with other turtle owners. For me, it has provided some clarity to the multitude of different advice (some of it bad) that we have received about keeping our turtle Patsy happy and healthy. Patsy is a long neck who I adopted from someone who was seriously ill and could not look after him any more. When we got him, he was in a 2 foot tank with gravel and an under gravel filter. We were told that he was about 10 and that was all the information we were provided. We've had him now for about 5 years. He has since moved to QLD with us, has a much bigger tank and we love him dearly. Recently I noticed that he was having trouble staying at the bottom of the tank (he would float backside up to the top). So off to the vet we went, only to learn that we were doing some things wrong. So after antibiotics, periodical dry dock and some other medication, he is on the mend. We are still getting his tank cycled and trying to get levels perfected before he is in there full time. He has a new canister filter which has been in cycle for about 5 weeks. Nitrates are still a bit high but slowly coming down. So, apologies for the long winded story but I do have a question. How fine does the river sand need to be? We got some from a landscaping supplies place but it has pebbles in it. I am currently sieving it through a 1ml sieve prior to washing it (3 hours and a quarter of a bucket later). Is this overkill? I'm more than happy to continue if needed but am keen to get it into the tank ASAP so that the pH can sort itself. Also, aussiepride83, from your photo it looks like you are/were in defence service. Thank you for your service and trying to make peace in the world. ✌ Appreciate your help, thanks.